Academic Research Publishing Agency Press
International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
ISSN: 2076-734X, EISSN: 2076-7366

Volume 14, Issue 3(March, 2013)

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1. ANALYSIS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC DEVICES USING THE PRINCIPLE OF DUALITY BETWEEN ELECTRICAL AND MAGNETIC CIRCUITS TOGETHER WITH FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS
by Antônio Flavio Licarião Nogueira & Leonardo Jose Amador Salas Maldonado
Abstract

Based on the limitations of classical magnetic circuit analysis, the paper addresses the use, in conjunction, of finite element analysis and the principle of duality of interlinked electrical and magnetic circuits. The device used in the derivation of equivalent electric circuits and finite-element models is an industrial alternating current (AC) contactor rated for 220 volts, 60 hertz. Two operating conditions are considered: a locked closing maneuver and the closed-core configuration. It is presented a step-by-step procedure to obtain an averaged value for the relative permeability used in the calculation of the reluctors that form magnetic circuits. For the two operating conditions, the contactor’s magnetizing inductances are obtained from electrical dual circuits and compared with values obtained from time-harmonic finite element simulations. Finally, it is presented a detailed analysis of the distribution of magnetic energy storage in different regions of the device’s numerical model.

2. ON SOME EXAMPLES OF FULLERENES WITH HEPTAGONAL RINGS

by F.J. Sánchez-Bernabe, Bruno Salcedo & Javier Salcedo

Abstract

Several works on nonclassical fullerenes with heptagons have mainly considered the case with just one heptagon.  In this context the isolated pentagon rule is not satisfied. The study of nonclassical fullerenes is important because some of them are more stable than the corresponding classical isomers with the same number of pentagonal bonds. We present several nonclassical fullerenes with pentagons, hexagons and two, three, or more heptagons.


3. CIRCULAR ANTENNA MODELING USING THE RESONANT CAVITY METHOD EXCITED BY THE HIGHER MODE TM21
by Ali El Alami, Saad Dosse Bennani, Moulhime El Bekkali & Ali Benbassou
Abstract

The aim of this paper is applying the resonant cavity method to a circular Microstrip antenna excited by the higher mode TM21 and which operates at the central frequency of 2, 45 GHz. The use of this application (only for substrates having high dielectric constant) gave us the opportunity to have such directivity and input resistance (impedance) which are higher, total input conductance which is lower compared to the dominant mode TM11.


4. ANALYSIS OF AC CONTACTORS COMBINING ELECTRIC CIRCUITS, TIME-HARMONIC FINITE ELEMENT SIMULATIONS AND EXPERIMENTAL WORK
by Antônio Flavio Licarião Nogueira & Leonardo Jose Amador Salas Maldonado
Abstract

The paper addresses complementary approaches to the calculation of electromagnetic parameters of an industrial alternating current (AC) contactor rated for 220 volts and 60 hertz. The methods of analysis include conventional electric circuits derived from measurements of terminal characteristics. The duality between interlinked electric and magnetic circuits is employed to calculate the contactor’s magnetizing reactance during a locked closing maneuver and during the closed-core configuration. The parameters obtained from the circuit analyses are compared to the more precise estimates of finite element analyses. Special attention is given to the subtle differences of circuit properties applied to the conductive regions containing driving currents as well as to regions where current is actually induced due to time variation of the magnetic flux. Attempt is made to facilitate the understanding of the physical phenomena related to the presence of eddy currents in the shading rings.


5. DETERMINATION OF ANTIBIOTICS AND OTHER COMPONENTS IN MEDICINAL-LOTION AND EVALUATION
by Changming Zhang, Zhanggen Huang, Shijie Guo & Yaqin Hou
Abstract

The aim of this paper is to know the compositions in unknown medicinal-lotion and to evolution its applications. Through a variety of studies, an analysis method was established. This method mainly is that samples were first extracted and pre-treated by concentration of compositions, and then they were separated and qualitatively analyzed by multiple-instruments. These instruments involve Mass Spectrum (MS), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The qualitative analysis were done by using four different diagnostic indices using the single stage MS analysis identification; the characteristics of FT-IR; the measurements of the retention time in the HPLC and the choice characteristics of compositions in sample to HPLC detectors. The chloramphenicol was found to be the main antibiotic in the medicinal-lotion. The other compositions were roxithromycin, dexamethasone, ethylene glycol, 1, 2-propanediol and ethanol. The quantitative determination of these compounds was measurement by HPLC external standards method, and this medicinal-lotion was also evaluated.


6. ON DICHOTOMY OF AUTONOMOUS SYSTEMS AND BOUNDEDNESS OF SOME CAUCHY PROBLEMS
by A. Zada, G.A. Khan, M. Asif & R. Amin
Abstract

In this paper we study the stability and dichotomy of the autonomous system  w(t) = Lw(t) and bounded-ness of solutions of the Cauchy problems.


7. A FAMILY OF TRAVERSABLE WORMHOLE
by Manuel Malaver
Abstract

In this paper, we constructed wormhole solutions, governed by the equation of state where it violates the null energy condition, so that P + < 0 , important ingredient to sustain traversable wormhole. Considering generic shape function, several exact solutions are found. Some physical properties and characteristics of these solutions are investigated.


8. DEOXYGENATING EFFECT OF LEACHING DEAD LEAVES AND NEEDLES OF SALIX BABYLONICA, POPULUS NIGRA, ACER MONSPESSULANUM, PLATANUS ACERIFOLIA AND TAXUS BACCATA (MIDDLE ATLAS REGION, MOROCCO)
by Zineb Benziane Ouaritini, Hassan Chergui & El Houssine Derwich/span>
Abstract

The effect of leaching dead leaves and needles on the oxygen content of the receiving environment was monitored in the laboratory. The results obtained allow to find that:

-          At 25°C, deoxygenating activity evolves with the duration of leaching, the initial concentration, the type of dead leaves and needles treatment and the foliar species.

-          The rate of oxygen consumption is fast and immediate during the first hours of incubation (8h) then becomes weak and slow (beyond 8 hours). fresh leaves showed a greater deoxygenating effect than the dried leaves.

-           Populus and Salix leaves showed an overall greater deoxygenating effect.

The deoxygenating effect of autumnal falling leaves on limnic ecosystems is considerable. It is therefore a natural infection with the terms, largely unknown until now, should be specified. 


9. USING TRANSFORMATION TECHNIQUETO SOLVE MULTI-OBJECTIVE LINEAR FRACTIONAL PROGRAMMING PROBLEM
by Nejmaddin A. Sulaiman & Basiya K. Abulrahim
Abstract

In this paper we used a new transformation technique for solving multi-objective linear fractional programming problem (MOLFPP) to single-Objective linear fractional programming problem (SOLFPP), through a new method using mean and median, and then solve the problem by modified simplex method [5]. The obtain results are compared with that of modified methods in [9].


10. ELECTRICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF HIGH ENERGY 197AU IMPLANTATION IN GAAS
by V.V. Bhide, K.V. Sukhatankar, B.D. Sutar, M.M. Belekar, D. Kanjilal & A.M. Narsale
Abstract

It is interesting to study the effect of high energy irradiation of semiconductor by swift heavy ions in MeV range and removal of defects after annealing. Single crystal n+ GaAs substrates of <100> orientation have been implanted at room temperature with 196Au ions at energy 100 MeV to the doses of 1x1012, 1x1013, 1x1014 ions/cm2. The as implanted current-voltage (I-V) characteristic of samples have been obtained. The substrate implanted with a dose 1x1012 ion/cm2 shows comparatively higher resistance which may be due to mid-gap damage related levels. The substrate implanted with a dose 1x1013 ion/cm2 and 1x1014 ion/cm2 shows comparatively lower resistance which may be due to hopping from damage site to site.

The samples implanted to the dose of 1x1012  ions/cm2 were isochronally annealed for 10 minutes by RTA system at different temperatures in the range of 1000 C to 5500 C and for 10 seconds in the range of 6500 C to 8500 C. To avoid evaporation of As at high annealing temperature, samples are covered by virgin GaAs substrate while annealing above   5500 C. The room temperature I-V curves for samples annealed at different temperatures were studied from which their effective resistance have been estimated. For low dose 1x1012 ions/cm2 implanted samples, an annealing stage is evident between 350 to 4500 C where the resistance after annealing to 5500 C decreases to 3 Ω. This indicates that the charge carriers trapped in the energy levels in the band gap due to defects have been returned to the conduction band after annealing.

11. ISOSTERIC HEATS OF WATER VAPOR SORPTION IN TWO CASTOR VARIETIES
by J. Ojediran & A.O Raji
Abstract

Equilibrium moisture content – water activity data for two varieties of castor (GSS and WBS) at temperatures 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70oC and water activity range of 0.07-0.98 were determined using the static gravimetric method. A non-linear regression programme was used to fit four sorption isotherm models (modified Halsey, modified Henderson, modified Oswin and modified Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer (GAB)) to the experimental data. These models were then compared using standard error of estimate and randomness of residuals. The sorption isosteric heats were determined by the application of Clausius-Clapeyron equation. The modified Oswin and modified Halsey proved the best for predicting equilibrium moisture content of castor with standard error of estimate of 0.238 and 0.242 for GSS and WBS respectively. The isosteric heats decreased exponentially with increase in moisture content and approached the latent heat of pure water at a free water point of between 13 and 16% moisture content (d.b). The difference in isosteric heats of both varieties was not significant.


12. VOLTAGE BALANCING CONTROL STRATEGY IN CONVERTER SYSTEM FOR THREE-LEVEL INVERTERS
by Srinivas Dasam, B.V. Sanker Ram & A. Lakshmi Sudha
Abstract

Outcome of DC-link capacitor voltage variation on inverter switching states is accessible and designed for three-level inverter. In this paper for back-to-back system by including five-level diode clamped topologies we are proposing a novel DC link balancing method. The algorithm which we proposed here is the improvement of variable switching frequency control policy which was previously introduced by means of three-level back-to-back system which depends on calculations of adjacent capacitor voltages which focuses on three-level DC link network to identify the information about potential variation in consecutive nodes. As per the above proposal, all four capacitors in DC link network are effectively balancing the voltage. Due to optimization of switching losses the proposed method has advantages over the variable switching frequency.


13. INTERNET MARKETING WITH CLOUD COMPUTING AND TRAVEL AGENCY REACTION
by Huang-Wei Su, Kuo Yi Chang & Der-Ren Hsu
Abstract

The purpose of this study is to examine what professional reactions are appropriate while facing the rising development of cloud computing? Also, this study seeks to reveal the specific personal thoughts of travel agency salespeople if they do feel threatened. At its conclusion, this study will provide suggestions for training programs or criteria of recruitment for the human resource directors in travel agencies. Also, those interested in travel business may use the results of this study as guidelines as they prepare themselves for the impact of cloud computing in Internet marketing.


14. A SEASONAL TIME SERIES MODEL FOR NIGERIAN MONTHLY AIR TRAFFIC DATA
by Ette Harrison Etuk
Abstract

Nigerian Monthly Air Traffic Data (NAP) is analysed as a time series. The non-seasonal difference of its seasonal (i.e. 12-month) difference (DSDNAP) is observed to show some seasonality. The autocorrelation function of DSDNAP reveals a 12-month seasonality, the involvement of a seasonal moving average component of order 1 and the product of two autoregressive components: one non-seasonal and the other seasonal, both of order one.  Therefore, a (1, 1, 0)x(1, 1, 1)12 is proposed and fitted to the data. This model has been demonstrated to be adequate.


15. ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY ANALYSIS OF EFFECT OF RF/DC POWER RATIO ON THE PROPERTIES OF CO-SPUTTERED TIXAL1-XN THIN FILMS
by Ashwini Kumar Singh, Neelam Kumari, S.K. Mukherjee & P.K. Barhai
Abstract

Ti1-xAlxN coatings were deposited using separate Ti and Al targets by reactive RF / DC magnetron co-sputtering on Si and stainless steel substrates. The phase, microstructure, surface roughness and chemical compositions were investigated.  The thickness of the coatings were found to be in the range 450 ~ 650nm and possess grain sizes less than 10nm. The roughness of the coatings was found to decrease with increasing sputter power. The compositional analyses of the coatings revealed that with increasing power the ratio of Al to Ti varies. The corrosion behaviour of the films in 3.5% NaCl solution was investigated using electrochemical technique.


16. INCREASING AMOUNT AND ENTRAPMENT EFFICIENCY OF CHITOSAN-KETOPROFEN NANOPARTICLE USING UTRASONICATION METHOD WITH VARIED TIME AND AMPLITUDE
by Purwantiningsih Sugita, Laksmi Ambarsari & Farida Farichah
Abstract

Chitosan nanoparticles loaded by ketoprofen have been prepared by sonication and centrifugation methods. Preliminary tests have been carried out by conducting optimization condition of sonication including amplitude and sonication time. Turbidity data showed that the optimum condition for sonication on amplitude and  sonication time at the percentage of 20% and at 60 minutes, respectively. PSA analysis indicated that decreasing of turbidity number of emulsion was also reduced particle size. PSA results showed that all formulas have  a uniform particle size up to 100% with polydispersity index was below 0.3. B formula has  smaller particle size and highest entrapment efficiency value than two formulae others, 222,1 nm and 87,463%, respectively. SEM and XRD analysis showed that chitosan nanoparticles loaded by ketoprofen have spherical form and semi crystalline properties, respectively.


17. FORMULATION OF VACCINES FROM TRADITIONAL PLANTS EXTRACT FOR HIV-IMMUNE BOOSTING CHARACTERISTICS
by A.K. Asiagwu
Abstract

Traditional herbs are the purest form of natural medicine and they all have therapeutic values, whether important or not. This research work involves formulation of vaccines or drugs from traditional herbs extract for HIV- Immune boosting characteristics. Five laboratory animals of different weights were infested with HIV virus and left for two weeks. After which five different compositions of four plant extracts were inoculated to these animals according to their corresponding numbers for four weeks. The weight and CD4 counts of the animals were taken before infection and four weeks after inoculation. Animal sample 5 showed a more responsive attitude than the other four. This indicates that extract composition 5 is a more potent HIV-Immune booster.


18. KINETICS OF SAPONIFICATION OF TRECULIA AFRICANA OIL USING A LOCALLY SOURCED ALKALINE
by A.K. Asiagwu
Abstract

The investigation on the saponification of treculia africana (breadfruit) oil via a locally obtained alkaline (Ngu), an extract of the burnt females inflorescence of oil palm bunch using kinetic approach proved successful and showed a high degree in the possibility of producing good quality toilet soap. The result obtained revealed that the reaction is essentially first order with respect to the caustic alkaline (KOH) derived from Ngu. The reaction constant averaged to 0.0695 minutes-1 and reaction tended to completion on the averaged of 30 minutes with a half life of 9.96 minutes. The reaction rate was substantially influenced by the various concentrations of the Ngu as the  saponification time-rate approached maximum with the highest concentration of Ngu. The soap produced from the sample was milky and soft and lathered well. The texture can be improved or hardened if necessary.


19. QUENCHING FOR PHENOMENON FOR ONE-DIMENSIONAL p-LAPLACIAN WITH A SINGULAR BOUNDARY FLUX
by Ze-jian Cui, Xue-ying Pang & Dai-lun Tan
Abstract

We study the finite time quenching for one-dimensional p-Laplacian with a singular boundary condition. It is shown that u quenches in finite time for all uo, and the only quenching point is x=1. We also discuss the corresponding quenching rate.


20. NECESSARY AND SUFFICIENT CONDITIONS FOR NEAR-OPTIMALITY HARVESTING CONTROL PROBLEM OF STOCHASTIC AGE-DEPENDENT SYSTEM WITH POISSON JUMPS
by Xining Li, Qimin Zhanga & Jianwei Shi/span>
Abstract

In this paper, we consider a near-optimal harvesting control problem of stochastic age-dependent system with Poisson jumps. The main aim of the paper is to establish necessary as well as sufficient conditions for near-optimality, satisfied by the harvesting control problem. The proof of the main result is based on Ekeland's variational principle and some estimates on the state and the adjoint processes. Then using It 's formula and Barkholder-Davis-Gundy's inequality, the necessary and sufficient conditions for this system are established. At last, an example is given for illustration.


21. GLUCOSE INSULIN SYSTEM SOFTWARE FOR THERAPEUTIC MANAGEMENT OF DIABETES IN HUMANS
by Babagana Gutti, Alfred A. Susu & Olufemi A. Fasanmade
Abstract

In this research work, a computer program was developed using the gut-blood system model as an infinite number of continuous stirred tanks in series and visual basic application tools, where interfaces were developed to read in some measured parameters from a subject. The developed program was used to analyze the information supplied by the subject. The result of this analysis is a prognosis of the subject’s condition that is available to the medical personnel, for decision on treatment.


22. THROMBO - EMBOLIC STROKE PREDICTION AND DIAGNOSIS USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK AND GENETIC ALGORITHM
by L.T. Popoola, Gutti Babagana & A.A. Susu
Abstract

The Back Propagation Neural Network algorithm was validated using hypothetical data from fifty patients with symptoms of Stroke. The data set was divided into training set and test set while the validation data set were chosen randomly from the testing data. Forty-two (42) data set were used for the training set while eight data set were used for the test. Four data were chosen from the test set and used for the validation. A MATLAB program was written for training, testing and validation of the neural network. Three different architectures with 5, 10 and 20 hidden neurons in the network architecture were tested to avoid overfitting and inaccuracy after which neural network with 10 hidden neurons was chosen as the best architecture. The training error converged to 0 after 50 iterations with architecture of 10 hidden neurons while convergence was almost achieved after 100 and 1000 iteration steps with 5 and 10 hidden neurons respectively. The ANN was trained and tested after optimizing the input parameters using Genetic Algorithm, the overall predictive accuracy obtained for the thrombo-embolic stroke was 90%.


23. ON COMMON FIXED POINT THEOREMS FOR SEMI-COMPATIBLE AND OCCASIONALLY WEAKLY COMPATIBLE MAPPINGS IN MENGER SPACE
by Arihant Jain & Basant Chaudhary
Abstract

In this paper, the concept of semi-compatibility and occasionally weak compatibility in Menger space has been applied to prove a common fixed point theorem for six self maps. Our result generalizes and extends the result of Pathak and Verma [9].


24. ASSESSMENT OF NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF UNDER FIVE CHILDREN IN AKURE SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT, ONDO STATE, NIGERIA
by Quadri Jelili Akorede & Ojure Mujitaba Abiola
Abstract

This study was conducted in Akure South Local Government of Ondo State to assess food consumption and nutritional status of under five children. A total of 355 children were systematically selected from a sample frame consisting of listed households in the seven wards of Akure South Local Government Area. Data were collected using a pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire to obtain information on subject socio-economic status, hygiene practices, breastfeeding practices and clinical observation for signs of malnutrition. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 17 and ENA SMAT softwares. The prevalence of stunted, wasted and underweight children was 12.5, 14.8, and 8.5% respectively. A few of the children (2.6%) had a MUAC less than 12.5cm while 3.4% had between 12.5-13.5cm (Acute malnutrition) and 94.1% had MUAC above 13.5cm. A clinical symptom of Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM) was observed in 2.3% of the children while eye (conjunctiva) pallor was noticed in 9.3% and pallor (palm) in 7.0% of the children. Mothers’ education affected the health status of the children; 81.8% of the mothers with no education did not give colostrum to their children, 16.7% of the mothers exclusively breastfed and majority (60.0%) of those that did not exclusively breastfeed had little or no education. Household size had a negative correlation with the nutritional status of the children (underweight) (r = -0.14; p<0.05). Household income was positively correlated with nutritional status of the infants (Stunting) (r = 0.18; p<0.05). There was a positive correlation between Mothers’ education and hygienic practice (food preservation) (r = 0.12; p<0.05). Level of mothers education was positively correlated with nutritional status of the children (stunting) (r = 0.23; p<0.05). There was a positive correlation between infants nutritional status (under-weight) and hygienic practices (food preservation) (r = 0.15; p<0.05). The result shows that more nutrition education is needed on the part of the mothers so that the poor nutritional status of the children can be improved, to ensure healthy living for both mothers and their children. 


25. AQUIFER COMPARIBILITY AND FORMATION STRATA IN OROGUN AND OSUBI (UGOLO) AREA OF DELTA STATE USING ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY METHOD
by J.C. Egbai
Abstract

Vertical electrical sounding (VES) using Schlumberger electrode configuration was carried out at Osubi (Ugolo) and Orogun areas of Delta State. A total of ten VES were carried out in the two communities with 6 VES at Osubi and 4 VES at Orogun with maximum current electrode separation of 500m. The equipment used for acquiring data is the ABEM SAS 1000 Terrameter with an inbuilt booster. The data obtained were interpreted using computer software WINRESIST. The interpretation processes were carried out firstly by curve matching and computer iteration where the geological model parameters and curves were obtained. Five geological layers were observed within the two communities. The ranges from topsoil, coarse grained soil, clayey sand, clay and fine grained soil. For Osubi, the water bearing zone depth ranges from 29.7 to 42.2m and resistivity ranges from 366.1Ωm. to 3304.5Ωm, but good portable water is observed at a depth of 30 to 39m while for Orogun location, the depth ranges from 13.6 to 54.6m, and resistivity ranges from to 101.3Ωm  to 6224.0Ωm but for VES 2 of Orogun location, water bearing zone is at the range of 20m to 42m. For this location, good portable water is observed at the depth of 38.0 to 39.0m. The study shows that locations 3 and 6 of Osubi and locations 1 and 4 of Orogun are the best for sitting boreholes since they have higher resistivity indicating low corrossivity and salinity with higher transmissivity.


26. KAOLIN QUANTIFICATION IN UKWU-NZU AND UBULU-UKU USING ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY METHOD
by J.C. Egbai
Abstract

Vertical electrical sounding (VES) using Schlumberger electrode configuration was carried out at Ukwu-Nzu and Ubulu-Uku both at Aniocha North Local Government Area of Delta, Nigeria. The survey was aimed at investigating kaolin deposit within the two communities. A total of 12 VES stations, six from each community uniformly distributed within the surveyed areas were carried out. The data from the field was interpreted using the conventional curve matching and computer iteration techniques where the geoelectric model parameters and curves were obtained. The results reveal four to eight distinct geoelectric layers namely topsoil laterite, kaolin, sandy clay, medium grained sand, clay, gravel and coarse gravel, with their various resistivities and thicknesses.

The investigated areas were divided into four rectangular and four square blocks for Ukwu-Nzu and Ubulu-Uku respectively. The analysis shows that reserve of kaolin deposit was established as 401,235.84 tonnes and 69535.44 tonnes. The volume of the overburden to be excavated was estimated as 33720.00m3 and 21,384.00m3 for Ukwu-Nzu and Ubulu-Uku respectively. The quantity of kaolin deposits in these two communities may not be enough for commercial purpose but could be mined locally for local advantage.














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