Academic Research Publishing Agency Press
International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
ISSN: 2076-734X, EISSN: 2076-7366

Volume 15, Issue 1(April, 2013)

To read and print the PDF files of the Journal Archive you will need to have Acrobat Reader 
 If you have any technical or content problems contact : publisher@arpapress.com

1. EXPONENTIAL STABILITY OF NUMERICAL SOLUTIONS FOR A CLASS OF STOCHASTIC DELAY AGE-DEPENDENT CAPITAL SYSTEM WITH POISSON JUMPS
by Xining Li & Qimin Zhang
Abstract

Recently, numerical solutions of stochastic differential equations have received a great deal of attention. Numerical approximation schemes are invaluable tools for exploring its properties. In this paper, we introduce a class of stochastic age-dependent (vintage) capital system with Poisson jumps, and investigate the convergence of numerical approximation. It is proved that the the numerical approximation solutions converge to the analytic solutions of the equations under the given conditions. A numerical example is provided to illustrate the theoretical results.

Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
April 2013 -- Vol. 15 Issue 1 -- 2013

2. EFFECT OF ASCORBIC ACID, ACTIVATED CHARCOAL AND LIGHT DURATION ON SHOOT REGENERATION OF BANANA CULTIVAR BARANGAN (Musa acuminata L.) IN VITRO CULTURE

by Nisyawati & Kusuma Kariyana

Abstract

The research was conducted to determine the effect of ascorbic acid (50 mgl-1, 100 mgl-1, 200 mgl-1) and activated charcoal (0.5 gl-1, 1 gl-1, 2 gl-1) independently with different light duration (darkness for 4 weeks, 16 hours light for 4 weeks and 2 weeks in darkness followed by 2 weeks in 16 hours light) on shoot regeneration.  Explants of  banana cultivar Barangan (Musa acuminata L.) were planted on MS basal media supplemented with 1.6 mgl-1 IAA,  4.0 mgl-1  BAP and cultured for 4 weeks.  After 4 weeks, degree of  explant browning was evaluated.  Explants were then cut vertically into two pieces and planted on shoot regeneration media.  After  4 weeks in shoot regeneration media, number of shoots were evaluated.  MS media supplemented with 1.6 mgl-1 IAA and 4.0 mgl-1 BAP without ascorbic acid and activated charcoal in darkness for 4 weeks was the most suitable media for shoot regeneration.  The shoot regeneration gave average of 10,4 shoots per explant.

Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences 
April 2013 -- Vol. 15 Issue 1 -- 2013

3. ON LONG TERM QUANTILE STOP-LOSS REINSURANCE
by Werner Hürlimann
Abstract

Quantile stop-loss reinsurance is introduced as a tool to manage long terms risks, as those encountered in the financial planning of nuclear decommissioning for example. Given a fixed pattern of future expected reference costs over a long time horizon, quantile stop-loss reinsurance is designed to offer a financial guarantee beyond a fixed financial target, say the median or any other percentile of the random reference costs. The financial guarantee is defined as difference between a higher percentile of the inflated reference costs and the financial target. The financial guarantee may be covered by a succession of multi-year stop-loss contracts, whose priorities and upper limits are set at the same medium and higher percentiles of the inflated reference costs. The actuarial basis required to calculate risk premiums for quantile stop-loss reinsurance is considered. An attractive distribution-free method used to get best upper bounds for quantile stop-loss risk premiums is also presented. To round up the study, a typical example illustrates the main features of a quantile stop-loss reinsurance program over a time horizon of fifty years.

Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
April 2013 -- Vol. 15 Issue 1 -- 2013

4. A NOTE ON PERIODIC WAVE SOLUTIONS TO NONLINEAR KLEIN-GORDON EQUATION
by Hong-wei Fu, Li Cheng & Zhi-long Cheng
Abstract

The nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation studied in this paper is an important model in many types of nonlinearities. Based on the expression of elliptic - function, the periodic-like solutions, which is periodic in x are presented.

Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
April 2013 -- Vol. 15 Issue 1 -- 2013

5. PROBABILITY WEIGHTED MOMENTS ESTIMATORS FOR THE GEV DISTRIBUTION FOR THE MINIMA
by Jose A. Raynal-Villasenor
Abstract

The probability weighted moment (PWM) estimators for the parameters and quantiles, using the general extreme value distribution for the minima (GEVM), is presented towards its application in low flow frequency analysis. The procedures to compute the parameters and design events (quantiles) for several return periods are shown in the paper. Two measures of goodness of fit tests are contained in the paper to compare the proposed methodology with other models in competition. A full example of application is presented in the paper to show how easy is to apply the proposed methodology.

Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
April 2013 -- Vol. 15 Issue 1 -- 2013

6. EFFECT OF SLICE THICKNESS AND TEMPERATURE ON THE DRYING KINETICS OF MANGO (Mangifera Indica)
by Aremu Ademola Kabiru, Adedokun Adetayo Joshua & Abdulganiy Olayinka Raji
Abstract

Mango is harvested in abundance during its season in most developing countries. However storage for period of scarcity and conversion to other products are not common hence heavy losses are incurred leading to economic losses as well as environmental pollution. Dried mango is currently being embraced by in most developing countries. Drying characteristics of mango as affected by drying air temperature and slice thickness were therefore studied with a view to understanding the drying kinetics and provide information useful in dryer design. Fresh mangoes were dried at 60, 70 and 80ᵒC at constant thickness and drying air velocity of 3mm and then 3, 6 and 9mm slice thick mangos were dried at constant drying air temperature of 70ᵒC, all velocity of 3.5m s-1. Drying information were fitted into four drying models namely: Newton, Page, Modified Page and Henderson and Pabis. The drying was discovered to have taken place during the falling rate period and Page model described the drying behavior of the mango slices satisfactorily with R² of 0.990. The effective moisture diffusivity coefficients increased with increasing temperature ranging between were 3.89 and 6.99 x 10-10 with activation energy of 28.95kJ.mol-1. This has provided useful information in dehydration of mango.

Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
April 2013 -- Vol. 15 Issue 1 -- 2013

7. COROTATIONAL METHOD AND DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY
by Mohammed Khalil Ferradi
Abstract

It’s known that in nonlinear analysis of a 3D beam with the corotational method, we obtain a non-symmetric tangent stiffness matrix, even in the case of a conservative loading, this is due to the fact that the rotation in any point can no longer be described by a vector, as in the linear case, but by an orthogonal rotation matrix, that is an element of the special orthogonal group SO(3), which makes the configuration space of the beam to be non-Euclidean. We will try to prove that by replacing the directional derivative in the derivation of the tangent stiffness, by the covariant derivative, we will always obtain a symmetric matrix, even away from a non-equilibrium configuration.

Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
April 2013 -- Vol. 15 Issue 1 -- 2013

8. A LIGHT MODEL TO EVALUATE THE DISPERSION EQUATION OF CARBON NANOTUBES
by Roberto Marani & Anna Gina Perri
Abstract

In this paper a simple procedure to determine the electronic properties of Carbon NanoTubes (CNTs) is proposed.

In particular the model allows to evaluate the dispersion relationship and is based on the application to band-structure calculation of both of them the tight-binding approximation and the theory of Linear Combination of Atomic Orbitals (LCAO), obtaining a reduction of computational time compared to other methods proposed in literature, without losing in accuracy.
Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
April 2013 -- Vol. 15 Issue 1 -- 2013

9. DYNAMIC EQUATIONS WITH RATIONAL EXPECTATIONS ON TIME SCALES
by Ferhan M. Atici & Daniel C. Biles
Abstract

In this paper, we introduce a class of dynamic equations with rational expectations on time scales. We use the basics of time scale calculus and stochastic calculus to derive the general solution of the equation. We discuss existence of a unique solution for linear dynamic equations with rational expectations including an initial condition.

Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
April 2013 -- Vol. 15 Issue 1 -- 2013

10. EMPLOYING THE GREY RELATIONAL ANALYSIS TO IDENTIFY AND EVALUATE CLOUD COMPUTING RISKS
by Chiang Ku Fan & Cong-Syuan An
Abstract

Cloud computing will provide the basic levels of computing services that are considered essential to meet the everyday needs of the general community, similar to water, gas, telephone, and electrical utilities, but it also inevitably triggers a certain degree of loss exposure. Unfortunately, there is little objective, scientific research focused on evaluating the loss exposure that results from cloud computing. In this study, a modified Delphi method and the grey relational analysis (GRA) were employed to identify and evaluate risks of cloud computing. Research findings show that the risks of Agreement or contract, Social engineering, Mistakes made by employees intentionally or accidentally, System vulnerability, and Cross-cloud compatibility are rated highly on severity and frequency. The risks of Privacy and Damaged or spoiled by employees intentionally or accidentally are perceived as being more severe risks but occur at lower frequencies. The risks of Jurisdiction, Burglary, Normal wear and tear or malfunction, and Natural disaster are rated lower on severity and frequency.

Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
April 2013 -- Vol. 15 Issue 1 -- 2013

11. FRACTAL AUTOMATION – A PROPOSED IMPLEMENTATION MODEL
by Albert Kleinikkink & Hamid Noori
Abstract

Organizations face fluctuations in product demand, rapidly changing product mixes, and a need to incorporate new process innovation quickly. Agile manufacturing solutions are needed to adapt to this dynamic environment. Warnecke [1] introduced the “The Fractal Company” to address these challenges. This paper proposes an implementation that builds on Warnecke’s concepts called “Fractal Automation”. It addresses the challenge through control system design, mechanical system agility and system user behaviour. Firstly, the model simplifies software complexity by modularizing control systems into resources, products and transport. Secondly, agile mechanical systems are applied with flexible product routing, resources (or stations) that are modular and easily moved, and increased process flexibility built into the resources. Thirdly, the model relies on system user behavior to achieve the fractal objectives  that are costly to attain programmatically. With an agile platform and access to data, system users are empowered to achieve fractal objectives of self-similarity, self-organization, self-optimization, goal-orientation and dynamics. This model enhances flexibility, scalability, and adaptability. The capital cost of the automation is higher but the total cost of ownership is lower to achieve agile manufacturing. This delivers productivity gains and competitive advantage.
Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
April 2013 -- Vol. 15 Issue 1 -- 2013

12. THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY AND ITS EFFECTS ON COMPRESSIBLE BOUNDARY LAYER FLOW OVER A CIRCULAR CYLINDER
by Oyem Onyekachukwu Anselm & Koriko O.K.
Abstract

In this paper, variable thermal conductivity on heat transfer over a circular cylinder is presented. The concept of assuming constant thermal conductivity on materials is however not efficient. Hence, the governing partial differential equation is reduced using non-dimensionless variables into a system of coupled non-linear ordinary differential equation, which is solved numerically. While the analysis on the stability and existence and uniqueness for different cases of variable thermal conductivity are shown, and as the temperature increases, the points of separation at surface temperature, decreases to an asymptotic value.

Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
April 2013 -- Vol. 15 Issue 1 -- 2013

13. RESISTIVITY IMAGING OF CRUDE OIL SPILL IN OGULAHA COASTAL COMMUNITY, BURUTU L.G.A, DELTA STATE, NIGERIA
by E. A. Atakpo
Abstract

Geophysical investigation has been conducted using resistivity survey along Angalakiri Creek, Okuntu road, Ogulaha area in Burutu  Local Government Area (L.G.A) of Delta State, Nigeria with the aim of investigating the lateral and vertical spread of hydrocarbon spilled into the Angalakiri creek  along Okuntu road and buried by the banks of the creek during the clean up of the floating hydrocarbon. The 2D resistivity imaging technique using the dipole- dipole array method was adopted for the survey with the aid of the SAS 4000 Terrameter. The inferred lithology from 2D resistivity inversion are topsoil, clayey sand and sand. The study delineated resistivity values ranging from 74 Ωm to 5010 Ωm. The high resistivity values (800 Ωm - 5100 Wm) are as a result of the buried crude observed in all the profiles except profile 6 which was located outside the polluted area.

This study has revealed that the buried hydrocarbon has not degraded and has spread laterally along the Angalakiri with vertical penetration of penetration over 7m.

This study, has confirmed that the 2D resistivity method is an efficient tool for investigating hydrocarbon pollution in a coastal environment.
Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
April 2013 -- Vol. 15 Issue 1 -- 2013

14. GEOELECTRICAL INVESTIGATION OF GROUNDWATER CONDITION IN OLEH, NIGERIA
by O. Anomohanran
Abstract

A geophysical investigation was carried out in Oleh, Nigeria to assess the groundwater condition of the area. The method employed in this study was the Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) technique using the Schlumberger configuration. The data obtained were interpreted by computer iteration process and results when compared with lithologic log from existing borehole indicate a four layered formation. The first aquifer layer was identified along the second layer with resistivity values ranging from 347.4 to 1137 Ωm and depth of 2.0 to 3.7 m. Analysis of this layer revealed that this aquifer is unconfined and prone to pollution since it underlay’s a loose sand and very thin clayey sand formation. The second aquifer is a viable potable water formation whose resistivity values ranged between 416.7 and 1459.2 Ωm. The thickness of the aquifer was found to range between 12.0 and 14.9 m while the depth was between 12.8 and 28.7 m. Boreholes for potable groundwater are therefore recommended within the forth layer.

Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
April 2013 -- Vol. 15 Issue 1 -- 2013

15. DESIGN AND NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF A SINGLE HALF-WAVE DIPOLE ANTENNA TRANSMITTING AT 235MHz USING METHOD OF MOMENT
by Adewumi Adebayo Segun, Alade Michael Olasope, Rotimi Cornelius Okeowo & Akinleye Abiodun Ismail
Abstract

This paper deals with design and numerical analysis of a single Half- wave dipole antenna suitable for transmitting UHF television signals at a frequency of 235MHz using Method of Moment. Two equations, namely the radiating field and the electric field strength equations were used to determine the variations in the electric field strength and free space loss with distance in kilometers. Other parameters such as the power radiated, gain and voltage standing wave ratio of the antenna at this frequency were also evaluated. The radiation patterns obtained shows that the antenna is a good radiator while the variations in electric field strength and free space loss with distance actually show the distance covered and the rate of loss of the signal transmitted at this particular frequency using half –wave dipole antenna.    

Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
April 2013 -- Vol. 15 Issue 1 -- 2013

16. STRUCTURAL AND OPTICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SOL GEL SPIN-COATED NANOCRYSTALLINE CdS THIN FILM
by M.A. Olopade, A.M. Awobode, O.E. Awe & T.I. Imalerio
Abstract

Cadmium Sulphide (CdS) thin films were deposited onto glass substrates by sol-gel spin-coating method, from a precursor solution of cadmium acetate, 2-methoxy ethanol and Polyethylene Glycol (PEG). The films have high transparency (more than 75%) in the spectral range from 400nm to 800nm .The analysis of absorbance spectra shows that the optical band gap energy ranges between 2.18 and 2.50 eV. Correlations between the various spinning speed of the respective thin films were established.

Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
April 2013 -- Vol. 15 Issue 1 -- 2013

17. TOXICOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF LOCALLY PRODUCED CASHEW WINE
by Awe S., Sani A., Eniola K. I. T. & Kayode R.M.O.
Abstract

Background: Wines are normally produced by alcoholic fermentation of the juice of ripe grapes by yeast; however sugar-rich fruits can be used. Nigeria is blessed with a vast array of seasonal fruits, which are rich in sugars. Large quantities of these fruits are wasted because they are produced in quantities that are in excess of consumption, and storage facilities are not available or poor. One of such seasonal sugar-rich fruits is cashew; the nutrients otherwise lost due to poor storage can be harnessed by producing wine from the cashew.

Method: Cashew wine was produced by fermenting 30% sucrose-supplemented juice of Cashew using Saccharomyces cerevisae SIL 59703. The physicochemical properties, proximate composition and microbiological quality of the wine were assessed. Varying ethanol concentrations (5, 7 and 10%) of the wine were orally administered to groups of experimental animals at 1ml/160g body weight over 18 days and the toxicity assessed based on hepato-histology of the experimental animals.

Results: The wine produced had pH of 3.8; Titratable acidity of 0.25, Vitamin C content was 70mg/ 100ml, and 10.1% alcohol content. It was free of sugar and microorganisms. Histological examination revealed that liver damage occurred at 7.5% alcohol (ethanol) level and above.

Conclusion: Wine that compared favourably with imported wine was successfully produced from Cashew. The wine was rich in Vitamin C, free of fat and crude fibre and safe for consumption at 5% alcohol content. At 7% alcohol content and above it caused distortion to the liver architecture indicative of toxicity.

Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
April 2013 -- Vol. 15 Issue 1 -- 2013













Academic Research Publishing Agency Press